Stroke

A stroke happens when part of the brain is damaged because of either

1) the blockage of a blood vessel or
2) the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain

Types

Ischemic – 85%
(Thrombotic/ embolic)
Hemorrhagic – 15%

Things that increase the risk of having a stroke include

1) high blood pressure
2) high cholesterol
3) Diabetes
4) Smoking
5) an abnormal heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation
6) lack of physical activity
7) Therefore, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking medications for any of these other medical conditions will lower your risk of stroke

Treatment of ischaemic stroke

1) Aspirin
2) Atorvastatin/ Rosuvastatin
3) Management of B.P.
4) Anti-oedema measures (mannitol, diuretics etc.)
5) Medication to prevent stress ulcer
6) Prevention and treatment of infection
7) Physiotherapy
8) Speech therapy
9) Nutrition
10) Thrombolysis
11) Surgery for Ischemic stroke:
a) Decompressive hemicraniectomy
b) Carotid endarterectomy
c) Carotid artery stenting

Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke

1) Medicines to reduce oedema
2) Management of B.P.
3) Surgery

Prevention is better than cure

Many strokes can be prevented, though not all. You can greatly lower your chance of having a stroke by:
1) Taking your medicines exactly as directed. Medicines that are especially important in preventing strokes include:
a) Blood pressure medicines
b) Medicines called statins, which lower cholesterol
c) Medicines to prevent blood clots, such aspirin or blood thinners
2) Medicines that help to keep your blood sugar as close to normal as possible (if you have diabetes)
3) Stop smoking, if you smoke
4)Get regular exercise (if your doctor says it’s safe) for at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week
5)Lose weight, if you are overweight
6)Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and low in meats, sweets, and refined grains (such as white bread or white rice)
7)Eat less salt (sodium)
9)Limit the amount of alcohol you drink

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